sexta-feira, setembro 04, 2009

δημοκρατία, and other forms

For Aristotle the underlying principle of democracy is freedom, since only in a democracy the citizens can have a share in freedom. In essence, he argues that this is what every democracy should make its aim. There are two main aspects of freedom: being ruled and ruling in turn, since everyone is equal according to number, not merit, and to be able to live as one pleases.
"But one factor of liberty is to govern and be governed in turn; for the popular principle of justice is to have equality according to number, not worth, and if this is the principle of justice prevailing, the multitude must of necessity be sovereign and the decision of the majority must be final and must constitute justice, for they say that each of the citizens ought to have an equal share; so that it results that in democracies the poor are more powerful than the rich, because there are more of them and whatever is decided by the majority is sovereign. This then is one mark of liberty which all democrats set down as a principle of the constitution. And one is for a man to live as he likes; for they say that this is the function of liberty, inasmuch as to live not as one likes is the life of a man that is a slave. This is the second principle of democracy, and from it has come the claim not to be governed, preferably not by anybody, or failing that, to govern and be governed in turns; and this is the way in which the second principle contributes to equalitarian liberty.”
Aristotle, Politics
Forms of Government:

Anarchy Aristocracy Authoritarianism Autocracy
Communist state Confederation Corporatocracy Consociational state
Demarchy Democracy (Direct Representative Consensus) Despotism Dictatorship (Military)
Empire Epistemocracy Ethnocracy Exilarchy
Fascism Federation Feudalism
Gerontocracy
Military junta
Kleptocracy Kratocracy Kritocracy Kritarchy
Logocracy
Meritocracy (Geniocracy) Minarchism/Night Watchman Monarchy (Absolute Constitutional/Limited Diarchy/Co-Kingship)
Noocracy
Ochlocracy/Mobocracy Oligarchy
Panarchism Plutocracy Puppet state
Republic (Crowned Capitalist Constitutional Federal Parliamentary + Federal)
Socialist state Sociocracy
Technocracy Cyberocracy Netocracy
Theocracy Theodemocracy Timocracy Totalitarianism
Tribal (Chiefdom) Tyranny

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